They were honoured every year by the new consuls before entering office at Lavinium,[276] because the Romans believed the Penates of that town were identical to their own.

Dumézil 1977 p. citing Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Matthew Dillon and Lynda Garland, "Religion in the Roman Republic," in, Most of the information about the Flamen Dialis is preserved by, G. Dumézil ARR above pp.
Such a cult once superseded on the Mount would have been taken up and preserved by the Iulii, private citizens bound to the sacra Albana by their Alban origin.

The Indo-European deity is the god from which the names and partially the theology of Jupiter, Zeus and the Indo-Aryan Vedic Dyaus Pita derive or have developed.[114]. Mutunus Tutunus had his shrine at the foot of the Velian Hill near those of the Di Penates and of Vica Pota, who were among the most ancient gods of the Roman community of according to Wissowa. [19] The couple were required to marry by the exclusive patrician ritual confarreatio, which included a sacrifice of spelt bread to Jupiter Farreus (from far, "wheat, grain").

[123] To the same atmospheric complex belongs the epithet Elicius: while the ancient erudites thought it was connected to lightning, it is in fact related to the opening of the rervoirs of rain, as is testified by the ceremony of the Nudipedalia, meant to propitiate rainfall and devoted to Jupiter. [18], Jupiter was served by the patrician Flamen Dialis, the highest-ranking member of the flamines, a college of fifteen priests in the official public cult of Rome, each of whom was devoted to a particular deity. Jupiter answered the prayers of the mortals by destroying the chariot with his lightning bolt and thunder. The god here had no image and was represented by the sacred flintstone (silex). In the Fasti Amiternini, this festival is assigned to Jupiter.

These priests also officiated marriage ceremonies.

Dario Sabbatucci above, as summarized in the review by Robert Turcan above p. 70. was religiously reprehensible.

teacher and priest of the divines. Each presided over one of the three realms of the universe: sky, the waters, and the underworld. Varro's definition of Jupiter as the god who has under his jurisdiction the full expression of every being (penes Iovem sunt summa) reflects the sovereign nature of the god, as opposed to the jurisdiction of Janus (god of passages and change) on their beginning (penes Ianum sunt prima).[165]. Even before Rome came to power as an empire, Jupiter Latiaris was worshiped on the hills south of Rome, then part of a coalition of twelve cities. surrounding him often featured arrogance and egocentrism.

In Vedic religion, Dyaus Pitar remained confined to his distant, removed, passive role and the place of sovereign god was occupied by Varuna and Mitra. In the Capitoline Triad, he was the central guardian of the state with Juno and Minerva. They were considered the only official interpreters of Jupiter's will, thence they were essential to the very existence of the Roman State as Romans saw in Jupiter the only source of state authority. Among them one also finds the Scandinavian and Germanic pagans, to whom Jupiter was not the king but a boisterous youth named Thor.

In this period the preeminence of Janus needs compensating on the Ides through the action of Jupiter Stator, who plays the role of anti-Janus, i.e. His name reflects this idea; it is a derivative of the Indo-European word for "bright, shining sky".

As the patron deity of ancient Rome, he ruled over laws and social order. Jupiter, as a sovereign god, was considered as having the power to conquer anyone and anything in a supernatural way; his contribution to military victory was different from that of Mars (god of military valour). [212] Wissowa opines that the relationship existed in the concept of creative abundance through which the supposedly-separate Liber might have been connectedTemplate:Sfnp to the Greek god Dionysos, although both deities might not have been originally related to viticulture. Many of his functions were focused on the Capitoline Hill, where the citadel was located.

A group of epithets has been interpreted by Wissowa (and his followers) as a reflection of the agricultural or warring nature of the god, some of which are also in the list of eleven preserved by Augustine. Jupiter
arrive at the Hindu version of the story. The senate in the end sent a delegation composed of ten members with full powers of making a deal with the plebs, of which were part Menenius Agrippa and Manius Valerius.


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