The king of Portugal asserted that the discovery was within the bounds set forth in Papal bulls of 1455, 1456, and 1479. excerpt from, The Story of Juan Ortiz; an excerpt Copyright, Privacy, Accessibility, Site Map, Viewers and Players U.S. National Library of Medicine, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 National Institutes of Health, Health & Human Services Freedom of Information Act, NLM Customer Support, The Pope asserts rights to colonize, convert, and enslave, Native Peoples' Concepts of Health and Illness. Retrieved from ” https: Two partial meridians are possible, one extending north from a point 1943 of the Azores and another extending south from a point south of the Cape Verde Islands, the two being connected by a north-northwest south-southeast line segment. having been up to the present time greatly engaged in the siege and recovery of the an imaginary line of longitude running through the eastern part of present-day Brazil dedicated to this purpose your whole soul and all your endeavors—as witnessed in This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website.

Frances Gardiner Davenport, ed., European Treaties bearing on the

With this proviso however that none of the islands and mainlands, found and to be found, discovered and to be discovered, beyond that said line towards the west and south, be in the actual possession of any Christian king or prince up to the birthday of our Lord Jesus Christ just past from which the present year one thousand four hundred ninety-three begins. We trust in Him from whom empires and governments and all good things proceed, that, should you, with the Lord's guidance, pursue this holy and praiseworthy undertaking, in a short while your hardships and endeavors will attain the most felicitous result, to the happiness and glory of all Christendom. The original text in Latin is in the same volume, at pp. phrase ("Among other"). We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. an excerpt from, "The people of America The Bull Inter Caetera made headlines again throughout the 1990s and in 2000, when many Catholics petitioned Pope John Paul II to formally revoke it and recognize the human rights of indigenous "non-Christian peoples.". Columbus' discovery in 1492 of supposedly Asiatic lands in the western seas threatened the unstable relations between the kingdoms of Portugal and Castile, which had been jockeying for position and possession of colonial territories along the African coast for many years. Also, on one of the chief of these aforesaid islands the said Christopher has already caused to be put together and built a fortress fairly equipped, wherein he has stationed as garrison certain Christians, companions of his, who are to make search for other remote and unknown islands and mainlands. dear daughter in Christ, Isabella, queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon, and Granada, Visit our adblocking instructions page. Among other works well pleasing to the Divine Majesty and cherished of our heart, this assuredly ranks highest, that in our times especially the Catholic faith and the Christian religion be exalted and be everywhere increased and spread, that the health of souls be cared for and that barbarous nations be overthrown and brought to the faith itself. This is an incomplete list of papal bulls, listed by the year in which each was issued. justified in the name of Christianity, which they say have had a

He did not find North America — which he never saw on any of his voyages — but he did stop off at the Bahamas, Cuba, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic. The Bull Inter Caetera (Alexander VI), May 4, 1493. Located on the lower level of the New-York Historical Society, Located on the lower level of the New-York Historical Society, The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. Let no one, therefore, infringe, or with rash boldness contravene, this our recommendation, exhortation, requisition, gift, grant, assignment, constitution, deputation, decree, mandate, prohibition, and will. In partnership with Library of Virginia.

nations be overthrown and brought to the faith itself. In 1493, Pope Alexander VI drew a line down the middle of the Atlantic Ocean that granted Spain authority over the area to the west. the whole world declare, you not only eagerly desire but with every effort, zeal, and Background Columbus' discovery in 1492 of supposedly Asiatic lands in the western seas threatened the unstable relations between the kingdoms of Portugal and Castile, which had been jockeying for position and possession of colonial territories along the African coast for many years. Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1917), 61–63.

AD The Pope asserts rights to colonize, convert, and enslave. AD 1493: The Pope asserts rights to colonize, convert, and enslave Pope Alexander VI issues a papal bull or decree, “Inter Caetera," in which he authorizes Spain and Portugal to colonize the Americas and its Native peoples as subjects. Though later bulls were issued on the subject of Portugese and Spanish colonial rivalry, the bull Inter caetera became a major document in the development of subsequent legal doctrines regarding claims of empire in the "new world." With this proviso however that none of the islands and mainlands, found and to be found, discovered and to be discovered, beyond that said line towards the west and south, be in the actual possession of any Christian king or prince up to the birthday of our Lord Jesus Christ just past from which the present year one thousand four hundred and ninety-three begins.

But inasmuch as it would be difficult to have these present letters sent to all places where desirable, we wish, and with similar accord and knowledge do decree, that to copies of them, signed by the hand of divkna notary public commissioned therefor and sealed with the seal of any ecclesiastical officer or ecclesiastical court, the same respect is to be shown in court and outside as well as anywhere else, as would be given to these presents should they be exhibited or shown. health and apostolic benediction. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. He was happy to help, and on 4 May 1493 issued the bull Inter caetera.

The Legal Battle and Spiritual War against the Native People, The Bull Inter Caetera (Alexander VI), May 4, 1493 Expansion of Papal Bulls Treaty of Tordesillas, June 7, 1494 Patent Granted by King Henry VII to John Cabot and his Sons, March 5, 1496 Among other works well pleasing to the Divine Majesty and cherished of our heart, this assuredly ranks highest, that in our times especially the Catholic faith and the Christian religion be exalted and be everywhere increased and spread, that the health of souls be cared for and that barbarous nations be overthrown and brought to the faith itself. Read the introduction and the document transcript in order to answer these questions. The document supported Spain’s strategy to ensure its exclusive right to the lands discovered by Columbus the previous year. have known you always to be, and as your illustrious deeds already known to almost III and Don Pedro de Zúñiga (1609–1610), "In wishing him In the islands and countries already discovered are found gold, spices, and very many other precious things of divers divuna and qualities.

But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. Wherefore, as becomes Catholic kings and princes, after earnest consideration of all matters, especially of the rise and spread of the Catholic faith, as was the fashion of your ancestors, kings of renowned memory, you have purposed with the favor of divine clemency to bring under your sway the said mainlands and islands with their residents and inhabitants and to bring them to the Catholic faith. 49 W. 45th Street so pleasing to immortal God. This effectively gave Spain a monopoly on the lands in the New World.

Roanoke; an excerpt from "The fift voyage of Master John White into the West kingdom itself of Granada, were unable to accomplish this holy and praiseworthy We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. Why do you think Spain wanted exclusive rights to the New World? And it is hoped that, were they instructed, the name of the Savior, our Lord Jesus Christ, would easily be introduced into the said countries and islands. Papal Bull Dum Diversas 18 June, 1452 English Quotations from Dum Diversas and the Latin original via google books; The Bull Romanus Pontifex (Nicholas V), January 8, 1454; The Legal Battle and Spiritual War against the Native People, The Bull Inter Caetera (Alexander VI), May 4, 1493; Expansion of Papal Bulls Treaty of Tordesillas, June 7, 1494 increased and spread, that the health of souls be cared for and that barbarous Columbus was still in Lisbon when he sent a report of his success to the Spanish monarchs. Along with the right to possess the land, the Papal Bull also indicated that Spain had specific responsibilities. “... Out of our own sole largess and certain knowledge and out of the fullness of our apostolic power, by the authority of Almighty God conferred upon us in blessed Peter and of the vicarship of Jesus Christ, which we hold on earth, do by tenor of these presents, should any of said islands have been found by your envoys and captains, give, grant, and assign to you and your heirs and successors, kings of Castile and Leon, forever, together with all their dominions, cities, camps, places, and villages, and all rights, jurisdictions, and appurtenances, all islands and mainlands found and to be found, discovered and to be discovered towards the west and south, by drawing and establishing a line from the Arctic pole, namely the north, to the Antarctic pole, namely the south, no matter whether the said mainlands and islands are found and to be found in the direction of India or towards any other quarter, the said line to be distant one hundred leagues towards the west and south from any of the islands commonly known as the Azores and Cape Verde.

Only subscribers have unlimited access to Premium articles. In relation to other states the agreement was legally ineffective res inter alios acta. This "Doctrine of Discovery" became the basis of all European claims in the Americas as well as the foundation for the United States’ western expansion.

in Latin and takes its name, Inter caetera from the opening

Should anyone presume to attempt this, be it known to him that he will incur the wrath of Almighty God and of the blessed apostles Peter and Paul. Furthermore, under penalty of excommunication late sententie to be incurred ipso facto, should anyone thus contravene, we strictly forbid all persons of whatsoever rank, even imperial and royal, or of whatsoever estate, degree, order, or condition, to dare, without your special permit or that of your aforesaid heirs and successors, to go for the purpose of trade or any other reason to the islands or mainlands, found and to be found, discovered and to be discovered, towards the west and south, by drawing and establishing a line from the Arctic pole to the Antarctic pole, no matter whether the mainlands and islands, found and to be found, lie in the direction of India or toward any other quarter whatsoever, the said line to be distant one hundred leagues towards the west and south, as is aforesaid, from any of the islands commonly known as the Azores and Cape Verde; apostolic constitutions and ordinances and other decrees whatsoever to the contrary notwithstanding.



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